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The fishing industry is "one hundred per cent united" in what it wants the Government's new Seafood Task Force to do for the industry, according to the Chief Executive of the Irish South and West Fish Producers' Organisation in Castletownbere.

CEO Patrick Murphy said in an interview that all sectors of the industry were united in their approach, writes Tom MacSweeney.

He said that fishing had been devastated and was reduced to being "just a memory" in his area because of the previous way decommissioning of the fleet had been forced on fishermen.

The key points the industry is seeking are a fair share-out of the Brexit fishing impact amongst all EU nations and a reversal of the discrimination shown against Ireland; that any package of aids to the industry should prioritise the most affected and that the Task Force must continue in existence until the coastal communities are properly protected for their future.

Listen to Patrick Murphy here

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Marine Minister Charlie McConalogue T.D. has welcomed the decision of the Court of Appeal to temporarily reinstate the Policy Directive excluding large vessels from trawling in inshore waters within six miles of the coast. This will apply at least until the full hearing of the case by the Court of Appeal in late June.

After hearing the motion on Friday 19th March last, the Court was persuaded that the balance of justice leaned in favour of the State at this time and granted a stay on the order of the High Court up until the hearing of the substantive appeal in June, at which time the matter of the stay will be reconsidered by the Court.

Minister McConalogue commented today “I am pleased to hear that the Court of Appeal has allowed for the reinstatement of the Policy Directive. This decision will mean that vessels over 18 metres in length are prohibited from trawling inside our 6 miles zone, at least until late June, except for a restricted sprat fishery, which would usually not occur during the late spring/summer period. The stay has only been granted up until the June hearing.”

The Policy Directive was introduced in March 2019, following the decision of the then Minister for Agriculture, Food and Marine that from 1 January 2020 all trawling by large vessels, over 18 metres in length overall, in coastal waters inside Ireland’s 6 mile zone was to cease, other than for a sprat fishery which was to be phased out during 2020 and 2021.

A Judicial Review was taken by two applicant fishermen who successfully challenged the validity of the Policy Directive. On 6th October 2020, the High Court made an order in favour of the applicants and the Policy Directive was declared void/or of no legal effect. A stay on the order was refused by the High Court on 10th December last. The Court of Appeal has now reinstated the Policy Directive at least until the full hearing of the appeal. The substantive hearing by the Court of Appeal is due to take place on the 22nd and 23rd June.

Published in Fishing

Ireland is determined to secure almost one billion euro in EU compensation for the impact of Brexit in spite of France’s attempt to reduce this country’s share, Minister for Marine Charlie McConalogue has said.

As The Times Ireland edition reports today, Mr McConalogue said it was not yet clear what proportion of this funding would be allocated to the fishing industry, but this sector is recognised as having borne “the most severe impact of the final Brexit deal”.

Mr McConalogue said that there would also be national exchequer funding for the sector, in addition to the monies from the Brexit Adjustment Reserve – as the EU’s 5 billion euro compensation package is known.

Earlier this week, The Irish Times reported that France was trying to cut Ireland’s share, by proposing a different “allocation key” that would result in extra money going to bigger states like France, Spain and Italy.

It could cut €200 million from the expected sum of almost €1 billion due to Ireland this year, according to calculations by Belgian MEP Pascal Arimont, the European Parliament’s rapporteur on the Brexit Adjustment Reserve.

In a frank admission of the Brexit deal outcome, Mr McConalogue suggested it was almost inevitable that once Britain’s EU exit campaign had put the fishing industry and reclamation of its waters “front and centre”, there would be a negative outcome for the seafood industry here.

He defended Ireland’s decision not to use a veto, in contrast to France which had threatened to use it in defence of its Channel fleet.

“Given that we catch one-third of total fish in UK waters, a “no-deal” scenario would have been quite disastrous,” he said.

“It was a tremendous disappointment that fish was contained within the deal, and involved a 15 per cent quota loss to Ireland,” he said.

Mr McConalogue said that part of the remit of a seafood task force he has recently established would be to recommend the best ways for EU and national exchequer funding to be spent to support the seafood sector and coastal communities.

Its final report would have to be completed in four months, he stressed, and its remit would include Ireland’s approach to the next EU Common Fisheries Policy review, due to be completed by 2023.

A former State scientist Dr Peter Tyndall recently called on the government to employ the “best legal and maritime minds” to take a legal case for a better deal for Ireland under the EU Treaties guaranteeing coastal communities a fair income.

Mr McConalogue confirmed he has asked the task force to look at the options of tying up vessels in return for compensation in the short term, or a “small-level “of decommissioning vessels permanently.

Asked how he responded to the industry’s call for more fish, rather than fleet downsizing, McConalogue said that he was “ absolutely....with the industry on that”.

Read The Times here

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Efforts are due to resume this week to avoid a series of 24-hour strike actions by State sea fisheries inspection staff after talks collapsed last week at the Workplace Relations Commission (WRC).

As the Times Irish edition reports today, the WRC discussions had been convened after SFPA staff voted “overwhelmingly” late last month for industrial action in a disagreement over consultation on management changes to the State body.

It is understood the discussions fell apart over an SFPA management decision to continue with organisational changes recommended in a consultancy review.

The Price Waterhouse Coopers (Pwc) review of the SFPA finalised last year found that the authority was “not working effectively” and that it required “urgent attention”.

The SFPA monitors and enforces sea-fisheries and seafood safety legislation, and it works with the Naval Service on inspections of fishing vessels under the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy.

The union served notice of the first in a series of 24-hour stoppages at sea fisheries harbours from midnight of March 8th, but this was suspended when invitations were issued to attend the WRC.

Fórsa and SFPA management resumed contact shortly before the weekend to seek a resolution, and both bodies declined to comment.

The SFPA committed to implementing the Pwc review’s 47 recommendations from early this year.

The Pwc review also referred to a European Commission audit of 2018 in Killybegs, which has led to a recent demand from the EU for “payback” of Ireland’s mackerel quota due to issues with weighing and under-reporting of catches.

It is understood that SFPA staff believe they are being blamed by the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine for the under-reporting.

Read more in The Times here

Published in Fishing

Red Bay and Larne RNLI came to the aid of 17 fisherman last night (Thursday 11 March) after their 35m Spanish trawler got into difficulty 11 miles east of Cushendall.

The volunteer crews at both stations were requested to launch their all-weather lifeboats just before 7.30pm following a report from Belfast Coastguard that the trawler had lost all power and was drifting into a shipping lane.

Weather conditions at the time were challenging with Storm Force 10 gusts of up to 54 knots and high seas recorded during the course of the call out.

Red Bay RNLI’s all-weather lifeboat under Coxswain Paddy McLaughlin and with five crew onboard, was on scene first to assess the situation. Larne RNLI’s all-weather lifeboat meanwhile, under Coxswain Frank Healy and with four crew members onboard, was diverted from a training exercise and made its way to the scene.

Weather conditions at the time were challenging with Storm Force 10 gusts of up to 54 knots and high seasWeather conditions at the time were challenging with Storm Force 10 gusts of up to 54 knots and high seas

Red Bay RNLI began to work with the crew of the trawler to establish a towline while the all-weather lifeboat from Larne illuminated the scene in what were dark, wet and windy conditions.

The lifeboat started a slow tow to bring the vessel back to Red Bay but the extreme weather forced the tow to part mid-way.

Larne RNLI established a second tow and brought the trawler the remainder of the way into Red Bay where it was secured at 11 pm.

Both lifeboats were requested to launch once again this morning after the trawler began to drag its anchor out of Waterfoot. In much better conditions and daylight, Red Bay RNLI safely towed the vessel into the shelter of Red Bay.

Speaking following the call out, Larne RNLI Coxswain Frank Healy said: ‘Weather conditions on scene last night were extremely challenging for all involved and I would like to commend our volunteers both here and in Red Bay for their teamwork over the three and half hours as they worked in darkness amid Force 10 winds gusting up to 54 knots and high seas. Our volunteers are highly skilled and trained for all eventualities at sea and that was certainly put to the test last night but we were delighted to help and bring the fishermen to safety.’

Published in RNLI Lifeboats
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The Minister for Agriculture Food and the Marine, Charlie McConalogue T.D., today addressed the inaugural meeting of the Seafood Sector Taskforce, established by the Minister to make recommendations on measures to mitigate the impacts on the Irish Fishing industry, and on the coastal communities that depend on fisheries, of the fish quota share reductions arising from the EU/UK Trade & Cooperation Agreement.

Addressing the Taskforce, Minister McConalogue said, “The outcome of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement will lead to a loss of €43 million per year in fish quotas for our fisheries sector, with knock-on effects on marine support industries and our coastal communities. The quota reductions in some of our most important stocks will be felt immediately by our fishing industry when the full annual EU quotas for 2021 are determined shortly. The impacts for Ireland’s fishing sector are disproportionate compared to other Member States and I again call on the Commission and other Member States to find a more equitable solution to the quota transfers to the UK.”

Minister McConalogue added, “I can assure this Task Force that the Government will work to ensure that the fisheries sector, and the coastal communities that depend on it, are supported through the period ahead. The Work of this Task Force will inform funding priorities for the coming years under my Department’s Seafood Development Programme 2021-27 and under the Brexit Adjustment Reserve.

The Seafood Sector Taskforce

The Seafood Sector Taskforce is chaired by Aidan Cotter, barrister and former CEO of Bord Bia. Mr Cotter will be assisted by a steering group comprised of Margaret Daly - Deputy CEO of seafood processor Errigal Bay Ltd and Mícheal Ó Cinnéide, member of the Aquaculture Licensing Appeals Board and former Director of the EPA and Marine Institute.

Chairperson – Aidan Cotter

Steering Group - Margaret Daly and Mícheal Ó Cinnéide

Members

  • · Killybegs Fishermen’s Organisation
  • · Irish Fish Producers Organisation
  • · Irish South & West Fishermen’s Organisation
  • · Irish South & East Fishermen’s Organisation
  • · Irish Islands Marine Resource Organisation PO
  • · National Inshore Fisheries Forum
  • · 4 main Fishermen’s Co-operatives (Castletownbere, Foyle, Clogherhead, Galway & Aran)
  • · Irish Fish Processors & Exporters Organisation
  • · Irish farmers Association (aquaculture branch)
  • · Fisheries Local Action Groups (1 representative of the 7 FLAGs)
  • · Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine
  • · Bord Iascaigh Mhara (secretariat)
  • · Bord Bia
  • · Enterprise Ireland
  • · Údarás na Gaeltachta
  • · Tourism Ireland
  • · Coastal Local Authorities (2)
  • · Irish Local Development Network
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A British registered Spanish owned fishing trawler was towed to harbour in Dún Laoghaire Harbour on Dublin Bay yesterday after drifting for days in the Irish Sea because of engine failure.

There are 15 crew members, some are Spanish, but most are Indonesian, according to news reports.

An official from the International Transport Federation, a union that represents maritime workers, called to the ship this morning, but was unable to make contact with the crew, according to RTE News.

Magan D was first reported to be in trouble last Wednesday when it was 27 nautical miles off the Welsh coast and experiencing engine trouble because water had mixed with oil and it could not start the engine.

Holyhead Coast Guard was attempting to contact the owner.

By Friday, the owners had organised a tow, but although they had hoped to have the trawler brought to their base in Pasajes in Spain, that was not possible so an Irish tug, Trojan, brought it to Dún Laoghaire.

News reports say that because Magan D is British registered it has reportedly been 'detained' by the UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency' which means it must be inspected and declared safe before it can leave Dún Laoghaire.

RTE News has more here

Notice of “rolling 24-hour stoppages” by State sea fisheries inspectors was suspended last night as a dispute between staff and management was referred to the Workplace Relations Commission (WRC)

As Times.ie reports today, trade union Fórsa confirmed that it has accepted an invitation to participate in a WRC hearing on Friday, and will suspend “proposed action as a result”.

Sea Fisheries Protection Authority (SFPA) staff voted “overwhelmingly” late last month for industrial action in a disagreement over consultation on management changes to the State body.

The first in a series of 24-hour stoppages at the State’s sea fisheries harbours was due to take place from midnight next Monday, March 8th.

Any industrial action could affect inspections of fish landings at the State’s six sea fishery harbours of Killybegs, Co Donegal, Ros-a-Mhíl, Co Galway, An Daingean (Dingle), Co Kerry, Castletownbere, Co Cork, Dunmore East, Co Waterford and Howth, Co Dublin.

The SFPA’s remit involves both compliance with and “effective enforcement” of sea-fisheries law and seafood safety law”, and it works with the Naval Service on inspections of fishing vessels under the EU’s Common Fisheries Policy.

The union’s marine branch represents approximately 110 members at the SFPA, which has its headquarters in Clonakilty, Co Cork.

Fórsa confirmed that notice of action was served last week, and said that the dispute “involves the findings of an independent review of the SFPA”.

A Price Waterhouse Coopers (PWC) review of the SFPA finalised last year found that the authority was “not working effectively” and required “urgent attention”.

The PWC review referred to a European Commission audit of 2018 in Killybegs, which has led to a recent demand from the EU for “payback” of Ireland’s mackerel quota due to issues with weighing and under-reporting of catches.

The EU audit, published in 2019, found Ireland had overfished its quota of mackerel by 28,600 tonnes, its horse mackerel quota by 8,100 tonnes and its blue whiting quota by 5,600 tonnes between 2012 and 2016.

Minister for Marine Charlie McConalogue is currently engaging with the EU on the “payback” sought.

It is understood that SFPA staff believe they are being blamed by the Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine for the under-reporting.

Fórsa says that SFPA management had agreed to a joint approach with staff on implementing 47 recommendations made by the Pwc in relation to changes in the organisation.

The SFPA said it did not wish to comment.

Read more on Times.ie here

Published in Fishing

The Government’s soft-touch approach on access to Rockall’s fishing waters for Irish boats is “totally unacceptable”, a former state marine scientist has said.

As Times.ie reports today, Dr Peter Tyndall has also called on the government to push for a renationalisation of European waters to allow coastal states greater access to their own fish stocks.

He said the EU could still handle the management of shared and migratory stocks under a “more honest” Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).

Dr Tyndall, formerly a BIM gear technologist, was commenting after last month’s warning by Minister for Foreign Affairs Simon Coveney and Minister for Marine Charlie McConalogue of “increased risk of enforcement action” by Scottish authorities around Rockall while “engagement continues”.

Minister for Foreign Affairs Simon CoveneyMinister for Foreign Affairs Simon Coveney

Their joint statement was issued four days after Donegal vessel Northern Celt was boarded by a Marine Scotland fisheries patrol while fishing within 12 miles of Rockall.

Ireland has never made any claims to Rockall, located some 230 nautical miles off north-west Donegal, nor has it recognised British sovereignty claims or a 12 nautical mile territorial sea limit.

Ireland is due to bear the brunt of a return of EU quotas to Britain, at a 15 per cent overall reduction in Irish quotas.

Tyndall said that the CFP, which is due for review in 2023, is “clearly a failure”.

He said he Irish government should now “engage the best legal minds” before 2023 to challenge a management system which is “in breach of the Treaties of Europe on the rights of fishing communities to an income”.

“The CFP is rife with injustices and the British Tory party actively worked this emotive subject to influence votes in the Leave campaign,” he said.

“ The effect that the CFP has had in Europe is totally disproportionate to its economic contribution. Norway rejected EU membership on two occasions while Iceland decided not to join. Greenland, a home rule dependency of Denmark, pulled away,” Tyndall recalled.

“ Even with the new agenda of reducing carbon emissions there is a strong argument that those closest to the resource should access them proportionately,” he said.

“Ireland’s leaders should have the courage to initiate this conversation with our European partners in the knowledge that it can lead to a fairer system and healthier stocks which would be more in keeping with the stated aspirations of European partnership,” Tyndall said.

Asked to comment, the Department of Foreign Affairs referred to Mr Coveney’s Dáil response on February 3rd

Read more in Times.ie here

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Wicklow RNLI lifeboat brought two fishermen to safety today after their vessel developed engine trouble six miles east of Greystones harbour.

The all-weather lifeboat under the command of Coxswain Tommy McAulay was tasked by the Coast Guard at 12:15pm and proceeded north to assist the fishermen.

The seven-metre fishing vessel with engine failure was located thirty minutes later, near the East Codling Buoy. Conditions on scene were sea state slight with good visibility. A towline was passed to the fishing vessel and a course was set for Greystones Harbour.

The fishing vessel was brought alongside at Greystones harbour and the two crew were landed safely ashore just before 2pm this afternoon.

Published in RNLI Lifeboats
Page 10 of 67

Ireland's Offshore Renewable Energy

Because of Ireland's location at the Atlantic edge of the EU, it has more offshore energy potential than most other countries in Europe. The conditions are suitable for the development of the full range of current offshore renewable energy technologies.

Offshore Renewable Energy FAQs

Offshore renewable energy draws on the natural energy provided by wind, wave and tide to convert it into electricity for industry and domestic consumption.

Offshore wind is the most advanced technology, using fixed wind turbines in coastal areas, while floating wind is a developing technology more suited to deeper water. In 2018, offshore wind provided a tiny fraction of global electricity supply, but it is set to expand strongly in the coming decades into a USD 1 trillion business, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). It says that turbines are growing in size and in power capacity, which in turn is "delivering major performance and cost improvements for offshore wind farms".

The global offshore wind market grew nearly 30% per year between 2010 and 2018, according to the IEA, due to rapid technology improvements, It calculated that about 150 new offshore wind projects are in active development around the world. Europe in particular has fostered the technology's development, led by Britain, Germany and Denmark, but China added more capacity than any other country in 2018.

A report for the Irish Wind Energy Assocation (IWEA) by the Carbon Trust – a British government-backed limited company established to accelerate Britain's move to a low carbon economy - says there are currently 14 fixed-bottom wind energy projects, four floating wind projects and one project that has yet to choose a technology at some stage of development in Irish waters. Some of these projects are aiming to build before 2030 to contribute to the 5GW target set by the Irish government, and others are expected to build after 2030. These projects have to secure planning permission, obtain a grid connection and also be successful in a competitive auction in the Renewable Electricity Support Scheme (RESS).

The electricity generated by each turbine is collected by an offshore electricity substation located within the wind farm. Seabed cables connect the offshore substation to an onshore substation on the coast. These cables transport the electricity to land from where it will be used to power homes, farms and businesses around Ireland. The offshore developer works with EirGrid, which operates the national grid, to identify how best to do this and where exactly on the grid the project should connect.

The new Marine Planning and Development Management Bill will create a new streamlined system for planning permission for activity or infrastructure in Irish waters or on the seabed, including offshore wind farms. It is due to be published before the end of 2020 and enacted in 2021.

There are a number of companies aiming to develop offshore wind energy off the Irish coast and some of the larger ones would be ESB, SSE Renewables, Energia, Statkraft and RWE.

There are a number of companies aiming to develop offshore wind energy off the Irish coast and some of the larger ones would be ESB, SSE Renewables, Energia, Statkraft and RWE. Is there scope for community involvement in offshore wind? The IWEA says that from the early stages of a project, the wind farm developer "should be engaging with the local community to inform them about the project, answer their questions and listen to their concerns". It says this provides the community with "the opportunity to work with the developer to help shape the final layout and design of the project". Listening to fishing industry concerns, and how fishermen may be affected by survey works, construction and eventual operation of a project is "of particular concern to developers", the IWEA says. It says there will also be a community benefit fund put in place for each project. It says the final details of this will be addressed in the design of the RESS (see below) for offshore wind but it has the potential to be "tens of millions of euro over the 15 years of the RESS contract". The Government is also considering the possibility that communities will be enabled to invest in offshore wind farms though there is "no clarity yet on how this would work", the IWEA says.

Based on current plans, it would amount to around 12 GW of offshore wind energy. However, the IWEA points out that is unlikely that all of the projects planned will be completed. The industry says there is even more significant potential for floating offshore wind off Ireland's west coast and the Programme for Government contains a commitment to develop a long-term plan for at least 30 GW of floating offshore wind in our deeper waters.

There are many different models of turbines. The larger a turbine, the more efficient it is in producing electricity at a good price. In choosing a turbine model the developer will be conscious of this ,but also has to be aware the impact of the turbine on the environment, marine life, biodiversity and visual impact. As a broad rule an offshore wind turbine will have a tip-height of between 165m and 215m tall. However, turbine technology is evolving at a rapid rate with larger more efficient turbines anticipated on the market in the coming years.

 

The Renewable Electricity Support Scheme is designed to support the development of renewable energy projects in Ireland. Under the scheme wind farms and solar farms compete against each other in an auction with the projects which offer power at the lowest price awarded contracts. These contracts provide them with a guaranteed price for their power for 15 years. If they obtain a better price for their electricity on the wholesale market they must return the difference to the consumer.

Yes. The first auction for offshore renewable energy projects is expected to take place in late 2021.

Cost is one difference, and technology is another. Floating wind farm technology is relatively new, but allows use of deeper water. Ireland's 50-metre contour line is the limit for traditional bottom-fixed wind farms, and it is also very close to population centres, which makes visibility of large turbines an issue - hence the attraction of floating structures Do offshore wind farms pose a navigational hazard to shipping? Inshore fishermen do have valid concerns. One of the first steps in identifying a site as a potential location for an offshore wind farm is to identify and assess the level of existing marine activity in the area and this particularly includes shipping. The National Marine Planning Framework aims to create, for the first time, a plan to balance the various kinds of offshore activity with the protection of the Irish marine environment. This is expected to be published before the end of 2020, and will set out clearly where is suitable for offshore renewable energy development and where it is not - due, for example, to shipping movements and safe navigation.

YEnvironmental organisations are concerned about the impact of turbines on bird populations, particularly migrating birds. A Danish scientific study published in 2019 found evidence that larger birds were tending to avoid turbine blades, but said it didn't have sufficient evidence for smaller birds – and cautioned that the cumulative effect of farms could still have an impact on bird movements. A full environmental impact assessment has to be carried out before a developer can apply for planning permission to develop an offshore wind farm. This would include desk-based studies as well as extensive surveys of the population and movements of birds and marine mammals, as well as fish and seabed habitats. If a potential environmental impact is identified the developer must, as part of the planning application, show how the project will be designed in such a way as to avoid the impact or to mitigate against it.

A typical 500 MW offshore wind farm would require an operations and maintenance base which would be on the nearby coast. Such a project would generally create between 80-100 fulltime jobs, according to the IWEA. There would also be a substantial increase to in-direct employment and associated socio-economic benefit to the surrounding area where the operation and maintenance hub is located.

The recent Carbon Trust report for the IWEA, entitled Harnessing our potential, identified significant skills shortages for offshore wind in Ireland across the areas of engineering financial services and logistics. The IWEA says that as Ireland is a relatively new entrant to the offshore wind market, there are "opportunities to develop and implement strategies to address the skills shortages for delivering offshore wind and for Ireland to be a net exporter of human capital and skills to the highly competitive global offshore wind supply chain". Offshore wind requires a diverse workforce with jobs in both transferable (for example from the oil and gas sector) and specialist disciplines across apprenticeships and higher education. IWEA have a training network called the Green Tech Skillnet that facilitates training and networking opportunities in the renewable energy sector.

It is expected that developing the 3.5 GW of offshore wind energy identified in the Government's Climate Action Plan would create around 2,500 jobs in construction and development and around 700 permanent operations and maintenance jobs. The Programme for Government published in 2020 has an enhanced target of 5 GW of offshore wind which would create even more employment. The industry says that in the initial stages, the development of offshore wind energy would create employment in conducting environmental surveys, community engagement and development applications for planning. As a site moves to construction, people with backgrounds in various types of engineering, marine construction and marine transport would be recruited. Once the site is up and running , a project requires a team of turbine technicians, engineers and administrators to ensure the wind farm is fully and properly maintained, as well as crew for the crew transfer vessels transporting workers from shore to the turbines.

The IEA says that today's offshore wind market "doesn't even come close to tapping the full potential – with high-quality resources available in most major markets". It estimates that offshore wind has the potential to generate more than 420 000 Terawatt hours per year (TWh/yr) worldwide – as in more than 18 times the current global electricity demand. One Terawatt is 114 megawatts, and to put it in context, Scotland it has a population a little over 5 million and requires 25 TWh/yr of electrical energy.

Not as advanced as wind, with anchoring a big challenge – given that the most effective wave energy has to be in the most energetic locations, such as the Irish west coast. Britain, Ireland and Portugal are regarded as most advanced in developing wave energy technology. The prize is significant, the industry says, as there are forecasts that varying between 4000TWh/yr to 29500TWh/yr. Europe consumes around 3000TWh/year.

The industry has two main umbrella organisations – the Irish Wind Energy Association, which represents both onshore and offshore wind, and the Marine Renewables Industry Association, which focuses on all types of renewable in the marine environment.

©Afloat 2020

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