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Thousands of international energy and marine engineers, roboticists and scientists among others are attending the global OCEANS 2023 conference hosted at University of Limerick this week in association with the Marine Institute, IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society and the Marine Technology Society.

This is the first time that Ireland is hosting OCEANS 2023, for delegates to gather from around the world for four days to advance research, practices and policies under the “Blue Ocean Planet Earth” theme.

The conference aims to address some of the major challenges facing our global ocean including arresting climate change, switching to renewable (significantly marine) energy and protecting and rejuvenating the world’s oceans.

OCEANS 2023 Limerick brings together key international industry and government stakeholders, buyers, investors, researchers, innovators, academia and policy makers focusing on emerging technologies, new research initiatives, the latest in commercial products and investment strategies over the next decade and beyond to address these internationally agreed challenges.

Technical tracks include renewable ocean energy production, rapid transition to very large scale offshore wind, technologies for ocean stewardship, food supply production and management, green shipping and remote ocean exploration.

From left: General chair for the exposition and co-director of the Centre of Robotics and Intelligent Systems at UL, Professor Daniel Toal; UL president Professor Kerstin Mey; Marine Institute CEO Paul Connolly; Professor Philip Nolan, director-general of the Science Foundation Ireland; and Professor Norelee Kennedy, vice president of research at ULFrom left: General chair for the exposition and co-director of the Centre of Robotics and Intelligent Systems at UL, Professor Daniel Toal; UL president Professor Kerstin Mey; Marine Institute CEO Paul Connolly; Professor Philip Nolan, director-general of the Science Foundation Ireland; and Professor Norelee Kennedy, vice president of research at UL

Speaking at the opening of the conference, UL president Professor Kerstin Mey said: “UL is a research-led institution that has launched both its Climate Action Roadmap and a Sustainability Framework — that is a first for any Irish university, so it is very fitting we are playing hosts to such a strategically important academic conference in partnership with the Marine Institute.

“The rapid pace of societal growth has caused us to exceed many of Earth’s planetary boundaries. We are now living in a deficit — consuming resources at a rate at which they cannot be replenished. The defining challenge of the 21st century will be to balance social progress and environmental boundaries. This conference brings together some of the most advanced researchers, academics and professionals from around the world to find ways to achieve that balance.”

Paul Connolly, chief executive of the Marine Institute said it is proud to be key partner of OCEANS 2023. “We need technology and innovation to build the new ocean data and knowledge that will inform and inspire the sustainable development of our vast ocean space,” he added.

“This will require new partnerships, new alliances and new thinking if we are to meet the new policy demands around our ocean space. This new marine science community has an enormous part to play in meeting the challenges and opportunities of our shared ocean space for the benefit of people, policy and planet.”

OCEANS 2023 Limerick has been endorsed by the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development and will deal with three clear themes:

  • offshore wind and carbon-neutral energy by 2050;
  • sustainable commercial use of the seas and oceans; and
  • ocean health and resilience.

The last day of OCEANS 2023 Limerick, Thursday 8 June, coincides with World Oceans Day.

Published in Marine Science

A group of young kayakers in Galway were treated to a scarce sight at the weekend when an angelshark surprised them for a brief swim-around.

Kayaking instructors Ronan Breathnach and Colm O’Loan from Galway Bay Sailing Club had the presence of mind to dip their camera into the water and capture footage of this rarely encountered fish in the waters off Rinville on Sunday (28 May).

“What a great day out for the group of 12 budding marine scientists of the future,” said the Marine Institute, who confirmed the sighting of one of the critically endangered marine wildlife species which is also one of the rarest sharks in Europe.

Angelsharks were once abundant over large areas of the Northeast Atlantic but pressure from commercial fishing—particularly bottom trawling—has been blamed for a significant decline in their numbers over the last century.

Published in Marine Wildlife

The Our Shared Ocean funding programme, specifically designed to build strategic research partnerships between Ireland and Small Island Developing States (SIDS), has launched a suite of competitive calls to support capacity building in eligible SIDS partner countries in the areas of oceans and climate action; inclusive and sustainable blue-economy and marine Policy; and ocean governance.

The multi-annual collaboration launched last year, funded by Irish Aid and administered by the Marine Institute, will provide €3.8 million over the next five years to facilitate partnerships on ocean-related issues.

Our Shared Ocean is part of Ireland’s response to the challenges facing many SIDS, recognising that our fellow islanders are on the front line of the impact of climate change and vulnerable in particular to sea-level rise and extreme weather events.

It also recognises the important role of SIDS in relation to global ocean governance and their capacity to develop innovative responses to these challenges.

The programme, the first of its kind by Ireland to engage strategically with developing island states, aims to leverage existing national marine research capabilities and expertise to empower the SIDS with the skills and opportunity to tackle local marine issues.

Following an extensive stakeholder consultation which included conversations with representatives and research scientists in over 20 countries from the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, the project team now invite joint research applications (Irish and SIDS partners) to develop MSc scholarships, research fellowships or project awards. Also on offer are travel and mobility grants to facilitate eligible SIDS student participation in international conferences and workshops.

Our Shared Ocean research topics reflect stakeholder feedback and are focussed on the most relevant challenges and opportunities facing our oceans today. These include, but are not limited to, blue carbon; coastal engineering; climate resilience; coastal and marine management; ocean economy; digital technology; and marine education and communication.

The grants are intended to provide research training opportunities for scientists in oceanography, marine engineering and related marine science, social science and humanities disciplines. The Our Shared Ocean Team can also discuss your research and how it addresses the challenges identified in the programme. Contact [email protected] or @OurSharedOcean on Twitter for more information.

Minister for International Development and Diaspora, Sean Fleming said: “Our Shared Ocean reflects Ireland’s commitment to deepening our partnership with Small Island Development States and ensuring we are championing responses to the issues they face. This important programme builds strategic research partnerships between Ireland and Small Island Developing States on issues related to oceans.”

Paul Connolly, chief executive of the Marine Institute added: "Without a shared understanding of the challenges facing the marine environment, there cannot be shared solutions.

“We are privileged to have spoken to inspiring scientists around the world, from multiple research disciplines, who are making a real difference to how we think about, use and manage our shared ocean space on a local and regional scale.

“We have listened to these critical ocean stakeholders, to become aware of the unique set of environmental and economic pressures these small islands face, but more importantly to hear their proposed solutions. We are confident our call topics match that ambition.”

Published in Marine Science

The Marine Institute has launched its new five-year corporate strategy to 2027 which sets out eight strategic priorities centring on transforming the institute’s knowledge, advice and services to benefit people, policy and planet.

Ocean Knowledge that Informs and Inspires sets out a roadmap to enable Ireland to deliver on national and EU policy goals on sustainable seafood production, ocean science and management, environment and biodiversity, maritime transport, offshore renewable energy and climate action.

Speaking on Friday (26 May), Marine Minister Charlie McConalogue welcomed the Marine Institute’s new strategy saying, Ireland’s future is “dependent on a healthy and sustainable ocean”.

He added: “Much like the rest of the world, Ireland is at a crossroads where challenge meets opportunity in marine research and knowledge. However, under the stewardship of the Marine Institute, I am confident that we can navigate the next horizon of change together. My department is committed to ongoing investment in marine scientific research, international cooperation and building skills capacity in this evolving sector.

‘The work of the Marine Institute is at the centre of how we navigate through the major challenges facing society around food security, climate and energy’

“Technology is a fundamental lever of innovation, and I am pleased to see that digital ocean transformation is a key priority in this strategy. While expansion and growth are themes, the focus is most definitely sustainability. The Marine Institute and this government are working towards a climate-neutral, knowledge-based blue economy for Ireland.”

The period up to 2030 is a critical time for humanity to address global challenges including advancing food and energy security, decarbonisation and reducing and adapting to climate change. The Marine Institute says its strategy has been developed in this context and aligns with the priorities set out in the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, recognising the essential role of ocean science in finding solutions to these complex global challenges.

Dr John Killeen, chairperson of the Marine Institute, said: “The work of the Marine Institute is at the centre of how we navigate through the major challenges facing society around food security, climate, and energy.

“Our new corporate strategy sets out an ambitious agenda for the development of the Institute and its service delivery to the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and key clients in a way that informs Government policy and inspires stakeholders and society to understand, value, protect and develop our maritime area and resources.”

Published in Marine Science
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North Atlantic – The Dark Ocean is a new TV series from Irish underwater cameraman Ken O’Sullivan that begins this Sunday 14 May at 6.30pm on RTÉ One and RTÉ Player.

Supported by the Marine Institute, this new natural history series follows O’Sullivan as he voyages off Ireland’s coast and out into the open North Atlantic in search of large whales, deep-water sharks and other iconic marine wildlife that inhabit our dark ocean — and reveals never-before-seen behaviours and challenges of some of our greatest wild animals.

Inspired by the spirit of adventure of early explorers such as St Brendan the Navigator, O’Sullivan journeys out into the open North Atlantic in search of the great sea monsters described in their early texts.

After more than 10 years, he finally swims with a fin whale and captures incredible footage that documents its individual patterns.

Using an unmanned submarine aboard the RV Celtic Explorer, O’Sullivan journeys to the deepest parts of Ireland’s Atlantic waters where he discovers thousands of cat sharks in a deep-water nursery. He also addresses the decimation of sharks in Ireland and across the globe.

North Atlantic - The Dark Ocean also deals with the concerning issue of the treatment of our oceans and its creatures. The series explores concerns such as toxicity in whales from human activity in the ocean and the decimation of fin whales due to whaling. The series emphasises how society must work harder to conserve these precious ecosystems.

In episode one, broadcast this Sunday 14 May, O’Sullivan explores the dark ocean waters to the north of Ireland. Here he encounters monstrous winter storms and discovers that these are a huge source of fertility in the ocean. He meets a group of minke whales lunge-feeding on shoals of sprat, and travels to Arctic Norway in search of massive herring shoals that once abounded in Ireland.

In episode two (Sunday 21 May), O’Sullivan travels the south coast of Ireland searching for fin whales. These hugely enigmatic creatures are the second largest animals to have ever lived, but almost nothing has been documented about their migration routes, especially for breeding, until now.

O’Sullivan voyages 1,500km out to the Mid-Atlantic ridge in search of more fin whales. Here he finds sea mounts, oases of life in the open ocean, and gains a deeper understanding of the ocean’s eco-system.

In the series finale (Sunday 28 May), O’Sullivan embraces the spirit of early explorers and gains an understanding of some of the ocean’s greatest and most diverse animals, from the surface waters to the deepest parts of the North Atlantic. He documents more than 30 basking sharks engaged in a courtship ritual – possibly the largest ever group of their kind captured on camera.

The series also features an original classical music soundtrack by young composer Bradley Ayres, performed by the RTÉ Concert Orchestra.

Speaking about the series, Ken O’Sullivan said: “Almost three years in production, North Atlantic – The Dark Ocean is a hugely ambitious natural history TV series featuring the iconic creatures and fascinating marine life of Ireland’s North Atlantic ocean.

“It would not have been possible without the support of many. We are particularly grateful to the Marine Institute for providing us with ship time and access to the RV Celtic Explorer and their remotely operated vehicle, the ROV Holland I, which enabled us to voyage further, explore deeper and share amazing discoveries in Ireland’s deep ocean.”

North Atlantic - The Dark Ocean starts this Sunday 14 May at 6.30pm on RTÉ One and RTÉ Player.

Published in Maritime TV

The Marine Institute’s Explorers Education Programme won the Best Education Outreach Award in The Education Awards 2023, announced at a gala event in Dublin recently.

“We are delighted that the Explorers Programme’s outreach module Healthy Ocean Project and Ocean Champions Award has been recognised for its excellence in promoting ocean literacy at primary-school level,” said Marine Institute chief executive Dr Paul Connolly. “This award recognises the quality of the programme and the work of those delivering it throughout the country.”

“This initiative provides children with invaluable knowledge about the marine environment, and it inspires innovation and presents opportunities across marine science, technology and the arts.”

The Explorers Healthy Ocean initiative is based on cooperation and co-creation and applies an ‘all-school’ approach where teachers, children, the programme’s outreach teams and local communities work together towards becoming ocean champions.

The judging panel described the Explorers programme as a “creative and innovative method of outreach and engagement”. The “very cohesive programme” highlights an important subject — healthy oceans — and has a “highly commendable collaborative approach in place to resolve the challenges the ocean faces. It shows a firm methodology that is achieving great results.”

“This recognition highlights the importance of marine-themed content being taught in primary schools. Seashore field trips, along with STEM and STEAM projects help teachers to focus on delivering content that promotes ocean literacy and engagement, in line the with new Primary Curriculum Framework,” said Cushla Dromgool-Regan, strategic manager with the Camden Education Trust, which manages the Explorers programme.

“The teams have worked extremely hard on the Healthy Ocean initiative and we’re very lucky and proud to have such talented people on board who inspire teachers and children to want to learn more about the ocean and how it influences all facets of life — from the oxygen we breathe, to the energy we use in our homes and to the food we eat.

“Applying an integrated approach helps schools to implement key competencies and skills for children’s learning. The annual Healthy Ocean School Project & Ocean Champion Awards initiative is an excellent example of how this can be achieved.”

The Explorers Education Programme outreach teams include Galway Atlantaquaria, Leave No Trace Ireland, Sea Synergy, Old Cork Waterworks Experience, Oceanics Surf School and and Seashore Kids.

The Education Awards 2023 were presented at a gala event at the Crowne Plaza in Santry, north Dublin on Thursday 27 April.

Published in Marine Science

Marine Minister Charlie McConalogue TD officially launched the Marine Institute’s Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2023 on Thursday, May 5th.

The 2023 report provides important and timely updates on national observations and recommendations previously presented by the Marine Institute.

The report notes the following key findings;

  • Sea-level rises of between 2-3 mm per annum since the 1990s,
  • A rise of ~0.5C in sea surface temperatures on Ireland’s north coast over the past ten years.
  • Identification of surface water acidification and year-round presence of harmful algal species

Pictured at the launch of the Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2023, today in Dublin were, Dr Paul Connolly, CEO Marine Institute, Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine Charlie McConalogue TD. Photo: Jason ClarkePictured at the launch of the Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2023, today in Dublin were, Dr Paul Connolly, CEO Marine Institute, Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine Charlie McConalogue TD. Photo: Jason Clarke

Speaking at a special briefing today as part of the launch in Buswells Hotel, Dublin, Minister McConalogue said, “It is critical that both scientists and policy makers are equipped with pertinent and high-quality evidence in relation to the changing state of our seas. This begins with the collection and observation of essential ocean variables from ships, buoys, and robotic platforms in our territorial seas and beyond, measuring ocean temperature, salinity, sea level, ocean carbon, plankton and fish species. This information enables marine scientists to analyse the array of data to gain insights into the nature of some of the changes we are observing. We also need to predict or project what will happen to our oceans in the future using climate models. Based on this evidence, we have set out ambitious climate action targets that include an annual reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

“Tackling emissions will help Ireland address rising sea levels, ocean warming and acidification, along with coastal inundation. Ireland’s climate is dominated by the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. As this report outlines and as most of us are already aware, the ocean and the atmosphere are a tightly coupled system, with heat, momentum and mass continuously exchanged between the two. Heat transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere provides one of the main energy sources for atmospheric motion” Minister McConalogue added.

 Irish Ocean Climate and Ecosystem Status Report 2023

Paul Connolly, Chief Executive of the Marine Institute, said “scientific evidence is critical to informing marine climate adaptation in Ireland: Local authorities require evidence to formulate action plans in line with national legislation. Changes in the ocean affect seafood, transport and biodiversity. Excess nutrients primarily from land-based activities, can lead to eutrophication and adversely impact marine life. The oceans provide 50 per cent of the oxygen we breathe. They are a critical element of the global climate system in their role to regulate atmospheric processes and for distributing heat, salt, and organisms. This research shows the impact of climate change is already evident in Irish marine waters with patterns of harmful algal blooms changing. The ocean off the southwest coast will likely become warmer and less salty by the year 2035,” he warns.

The report mainly focuses on Irish waters with findings put into context with wider international climate change efforts such as the International Panel on Climate Change’s 6th assessment report. In thematic layout, it summarises key changes in marine conditions, and examines changing atmospheric conditions (ocean circulation, chemistry, plankton, fisheries and seabirds), and examines the link between freshwater catchments and the ocean. Model predictions and marine infrastructures critical to understanding Ireland’s changing marine climate are also considered.

The report represents a collaboration between marine researchers within the Marine Institute and others based in Ireland’s higher education institutes and public bodies. It includes authors from Met Éireann, Maynooth University, the University of Galway, the Atlantic Technological University, National Parks and Wildlife, Birdwatch Ireland, Trinity College Dublin, University College Dublin, Inland Fisheries Ireland, The National Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Dundalk Institute of Technology.

Published in Marine Science
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Minister of State for Trade Promotion and Digital Transformation, Dara Calleary T.D., today visited the Marine Institute's Newport Facility in Co Mayo.

Welcoming Minister Calleary, Dr John Killeen, Chair Marine Institute, said: "We are delighted to welcome Minister Calleary to the Marine Institute to see our facilities and meet with some of our scientific researchers. Research is central to the services we provide to industry, government and stakeholders in Ireland. The work that we do here at our Newport facility has national implications, international relevance, and benefits people, policy and planet”. 

The Marine Institute's facility in Newport is a unique research centre, where a range of cutting-edge research is undertaken, including genetics work across several species of salmon, sea bass, pollock and bluefin tuna, as well as research on catchment ecosystems, climate change, oceanography and aquaculture. The facility, which has been in operation since 1955, includes laboratories, a freshwater hatchery, fish-rearing facilities, fish census trapping stations, a salmonid angling fishery and a monitored freshwater lake and river catchment.

The research facility forms one of the greatest natural laboratories for studying migratory fish in Europe. Minister Calleary had the opportunity to tour the state-of-the-art facilities and to meet with researchers and scientists, and hear about some of the innovative research projects taking place at the site in sustainable seafood, future fisheries and in biodiversity.

Minister Calleary also gained an understanding of the role of the Marine Institute in climate adaptation and particularly how data is collected and used in climate modelling and monitoring to deal with the impacts of climate change on our coastline. As part of the visit, Minister Calleary was able to visit the manual climate station onsite and see the instruments used to collect data for Met Éireann. The scientists explained Newport’s role as a sentinel site, and its value for monitoring for climate change globally.

Speaking about the Marine Institute’s role Marine Institute CEO, Dr Paul Connolly said: “Forecasting ocean and climate change is one of the Institute’s strategic focus areas. The Marine Institute has a range of observational infrastructures around the Irish marine area continually gathering data on the marine environment. Over the years, we have built up significant time-series information and this data is central to developing digital services, including operational modelling which inform climate mitigation and adaptation measures in areas such as sea level rise and flooding.”

Following the visit, Minister Calleary said: "It has been a pleasure to meet the Marine Institute scientists based at Newport and to learn about the exemplary research that is carried out there. The Marine Institute work demonstrates how government funding is enabling solution-orientated research in the areas of aquaculture, fisheries and climate change. This research is critical to enable key sectors of our blue economy to develop sustainably. It is also important to see the collaborative approach that underpins these research projects, where Marine Institute scientists are working together with other Government agencies like Met Eireann, BIM, third-level institutions and industry.”

“Ireland has a strong reputation in Europe and internationally for its marine research and innovation, and for driving collaboration in this area. We have a superb marine research community supported by growing national research infrastructure. The Marine Institute’s Newport facility is unique and is enabling research that is delivering important societal benefits. I would like to take this opportunity to commend the Marine Institute and their partners for their efforts in building a strong international track record and in applied marine research and innovation,” he said.

Published in Marine Science
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The Marine Institute has today published its Year in Review 2022, a snapshot of some of the organisation’s many highlights during a positive and productive year.

The 24-page publication presents key achievements across the Institute during the year, along with a selection of key facts, figures and photographs.

Dr Paul Connolly, CEO of the Marine Institute, said: “The breadth and quality of Institute activities are a testament to the commitment and innovation of our people as the Marine Institute works to provide ocean knowledge that informs and inspires, benefitting people, policy and planet. Nowhere was this collaborative spirit more apparent than in the major milestone achieved in 2022, with the launch of our new national marine research vessel, the RV Tom Crean”.

The state-of-the-art vessel, the RV Tom Crean, was built and delivered on schedule, and on budget. This was a remarkable achievement when one notes that it was constructed entirely during the challenging and ever-changing Covid-19 pandemic.

The state-of-the-art vessel, the RV Tom Crean pictured on a visit to Cork Harbour. The new ship was built and delivered on schedule, and on budget Photo: Bob BatemanThe state-of-the-art vessel, the RV Tom Crean pictured on a visit to Cork Harbour. The new ship was built and delivered on schedule, and on budget Photo: Bob Bateman

Other highlights presented in Year in Review 2022 include the continued scientific advice and services provided to the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine and other government departments, agencies and stakeholders, including the public. These services are essential to achieving a sustainable ocean economy, protecting and managing our marine ecosystems, and meeting EU obligations.

Some 4,164km2 of seabed was mapped in the Celtic Sea by the Institute in 2022 as part of the INFOMAR programme in partnership with Geological Survey Ireland.

Climate change continued to be an important focus area for the Institute during the year, as it worked with climate stakeholders in defining the climate services they need for the marine domain, supported work in the reporting of Climate Actions and continued support for Ireland’s climate change research.

The organisation’s Research Funding Office administered €7.6 million in new research investments awarded under the organisation’s Marine Research Programme during 2022. This included funding ship-time on the research vessels and remotely operated vehicle, and the funding of wide-ranging and impactful research projects.

In September 2022, the Marine Institute was delighted to participate in and contribute to the ICES Annual Science Conference, held in Dublin, where leading marine scientists from around the world came together to share scientific research supporting a sustainable ocean.

Other key events and initiatives during the year included the visit of the Portuguese President, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, and the Irish President, Michael D Higgins, to the newly commissioned RV Tom Crean, the launch of the Our Shared Ocean programme, presenting the 2022 Stock Book to Government and producing the Institute’s first Climate Action Roadmap (outlining how the Institute will work towards meeting its sustainability and energy reduction targets). The Institute was also proud to publish its Equality, Diversity & Inclusion Plan in 2022 and also progressed work on its new Strategic Plan, due to be published this year.

View the Marine Institute Year in Review 2022 here

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The Marine Institute’s Explorers Education Programme, which engages with primary schools, teachers, children and the education sector, recorded the largest number of participating children in 2022, reaching more than 15,000 throughout Ireland.

Congratulating the team, Dr Paul Connolly, CEO of the Marine Institute, said: “This outcome is reflective of the quality of the Explorers outreach programme, which promotes marine education and how well the programme is delivered by Explorers outreach teams in schools around the coast.”

“Marine projects, seashore safaris, STEM workshops, aquariums in-the-class and the healthy ocean school projects, are excellent examples of how teachers can use marine content to develop children’s key competencies to enable them to become active citizens.

The most recent Explorers Engagement & Impact Report also shows that the programme increased ocean literacy among pre-service teachers, children and school teachers where 463 modules were delivered, focused on aquariums-in-the-classroom, seashore safaris, marine project and STEM workshops, as well new healthy ocean school projects”.

The Explorers education programme has seen an increase in ocean literacy in Schools according to the latest reportThe Explorers education programme has seen an increase in ocean literacy in Schools according to the latest report

Delighted with the progress during 2022, Cushla Dromgool-Regan, Manager of the Explorers Education Programme, said: “Outreach officers adopt an integrated approach to delivering the wide range of activities available, supported by the Explorers education resources. This enables teachers to complete cross-curricular marine-themed projects in the classroom and helps children to take a greater lead in their learning and to becoming ocean literate.

“Applying an integrated approach also reflects the principles set out in the new Primary Curriculum Framework launched earlier this month by Norma Foley, T.D., Minister for Education, Norma Foley,” explained Ms Dromgool-Regan.

The Framework introduces key competencies for children’s learning, and sets out the main features and components for a full redevelopment of the primary school curriculum. The new Healthy Ocean School Project module is an excellent example of how learning can be expanded through STEM, languages and the arts.

With the objective of creating marine leaders and ocean champions, the ‘Healthy Ocean Projects & Ocean Champion Awards’ - attracted twenty-six schools in fourteen counties who submitted 28 projects covering science, artwork and beach cleans.

More information about the Explorers Education Programme here

Published in Marine Science
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