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Displaying items by tag: Climate Change

Heat extremes in Ireland will become more frequent and severe, and technological advancements will only deliver short-term benefits if steps towards “transformative change” are not taken, a new report published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) warns.

Ireland’s Climate Change Assessment (ICCA) report is the culmination of over two years of work that examines, over four volumes, how Ireland’s climate is changing.

Described as a “state of the art assessment”, it also examines how the island can be decarbonised, how climate change can be prepared for, and examines the benefits in transitioning to a low carbon society.

Researchers from Trinity College Dublin’s (TCD) Schools of Natural Sciences and Engineering worked on two volumes of the report and a summary document for policymakers.

The study notes that in line with global trends, 16 of the 20 warmest years in Ireland have occurred since 1990.

It says that having peaked in 2001, Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions have reduced in all sectors except agriculture.

However, Ireland currently emits more greenhouse gases per person than the EU average.

It says that more action is needed to meet Ireland's legally binding emissions targets, including large-scale and immediate emissions reductions across the energy system, which is currently heavily dependent (86%) on fossil fuels.

It says that “immediate and sustained transformative mitigation and adaptation actions” are “likely to yield substantial benefits for health, wellbeing and biodiversity in Ireland while reducing vulnerability to the adverse impacts of climate change”.

The full report is available here

Published in Weather

The Marine Institute has held an “Energy Awareness Day” to mark the launch of its Climate Action Roadmap.

This is part of the institute’s five-year strategy — Ocean Knowledge that Informs and Inspires — which sets a new vision and mission for the Marine Institute and identifies eight strategic priorities for the period 2023-2027.

Sustainability and climate is to the core of the strategy, it says, which gives priority to the delivery of the Climate Action Roadmap.

The Marine Institute boasts that combined efforts of staff have resulted in a 41% energy reduction in its Galway headquarters since 2015, improvements in waste management and energy management measures across its fleet of research vessels, including the RV Celtic Explorer and RV Tom Crean — the latter of which replaces the RV Celtic Voyager, now en route to its new home in northern Canada.

Other efforts include becoming a supporter of the All-Ireland Pollinator Plan, promotion of energy and sustainability awareness, and the commencement of My Green Lab certification in 2022.

Patricia Orme is director of corporate services at the Marine Institute and also serves as its ‘Climate and Sustainability Champion’ and energy performance officer.

She said: “The improvements already achieved are immense and are the result of the combined efforts of Colleagues across the Marine Institute. I look forward to seeing continual progress as we work through the projects detailed in the Climate Action Roadmap.”

A number of activities also took place during the Energy Awareness Day to recognise the energy savings achieved by the Marine Institute and how staff can continue to ‘get greener’ at work and home.

Staff participated in demonstrations of sustainable practices from Optimising Power@Work, household WEEE (Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment) collection, wildflower seed giveaways and tours of the recently upgraded boilers in the plant room.

Published in Environment

The public consultation has now commenced for the Loughs Agency’s draft Climate Action Plan, which outlines how the organisation aims to reduce its carbon emissions in the coming years.

Responses are welcome for the next 12 weeks, with the consultation period closing on 31 January 2024.

The draft Climate Action Plan aims to reflect the leadership role the organisation wishes to take while supporting a modal shift away from high-carbon energy and implementing climate-resilient solutions for both the Foyle and Carlingford catchment areas.

As previously reported on Afloat.ie, the Loughs Agency is holding two information sessions this week with staff present at both sessions to answer questions on the draft plan while also assisting with the feedback process.

Alternatively, those interested in having their say on these strategy documents can do so in their own time by reading the draft plan and completing the online survey.

Published in Environment

A public consultation will soon commence on the Loughs Agency’s draft Climate Action Plan, which outlines how the organisation aims to reduce its carbon emissions in the coming years.

The consultation, which will run for 12 weeks from Wednesday 8 November, will provide members of the public with the opportunity to share their thoughts on the Loughs Agency’s plans to combat climate change.

A draft version of the Climate Action Plan has been developed, reflecting the leadership role the organisation wishes to take while supporting a modal shift away from high-carbon energy and implementing climate-resilient solutions for both the Foyle and Carlingford catchment areas.

The headline commitment from the draft Climate Action Plan is the Loughs Agency’s ‘Climate Ambition’, defined as follows: “To reduce our greenhouse gas emissions by 51% by 2030 and to be a net zero carbon and climate-resilient Agency by 2050.”

These targets will help the organisation align with the ambitions of strategic stakeholders and respective government departments.

In addition, the plan will help ensure that Loughs Agency remains at the forefront of developing and leading in the field of climate adaptation and mitigation, further enhancing its mission in protecting the natural environment and the species within Foyle and Carlingford.

The Loughs Agency will be holding two information sessions in November, with staff present at both sessions to answer questions on the draft plan while also assisting with the feedback process:

  • Loughs Agency HQ, Prehen, Wednesday 8 November from 5pm-8pm
  • The Foy Centre, Dundalk St, Carlingford, Thursday 9 November from 5pm-8pm

Alternatively, those interested in having their say on these strategy documents can do so in their own time by reading the draft plan and completing the survey, which will be available on the Consultations section of the Loughs Agency website from Wednesday 8 November.

Loughs Agency chief executive Sharon McMahon said: “Climate change is now an immediate reality, and the work of Loughs Agency has never been more relevant in protecting the aquatic environment in our catchments.

:The impacts of climate change are already being felt on the aquatic ecosystems that we protect, conserve, and develop. We are acutely aware of the delicate ecological balance within these aquatic habitats and how this balance relates to wider ecosystems and to the wider communities who live within these areas.

“While the agency has statutory obligations and targets regarding climate action in both jurisdictions, a planned response to climate change is at the heart of what we do. In our remit to conserve and protect the catchments under our care, we develop nature-based solutions to the challenges of climate change and implement these solutions through adaptation and mitigation strategies.

“Thus Loughs Agency, as an environmental organisation, has an opportunity to show leadership in this area and be an exemplar of best practice in response to climate change.”

Published in Environment

Music for Galway’s Cellissimo Festival and Galway Atlantaquaria have teamed up for an ambitious project to spark community exploration of the local impacts of climate change on our seas and marine biodiversity — and inspire action to address the climate emergency.

Galway Bay Is Calling will bring together marine conservationists, behavioural scientists and scores of professional and community musicians, singers and performers from across Galway city and county in a unique creative collaboration that will pose individual and collective responses to the climate emergency through music and performance.

Music for Galway, the classical music resource organisation, and Galway Atlantaquaria, Ireland’s largest native-species aquarium, have secured investment through the Creative Ireland Climate Action Spark Fund to develop the project.

“Galway Bay Is Calling fits right into a central theme of Cellissimo, our international cello festival which takes place for the second time across Galway city and county from 18-25 May next year,” says Music for Galway chief executive Anna Lardi.

“As well as producing an exciting, accessible international music festival, we are approaching Cellissimo as a vehicle to creatively highlight the impacts of climate change, with a particular focus on the plight of climate migrants.”

Dr Maria Vittoria Marra, education and public engagement officer at Galway Atlantaquaria added: “We are delighted to have this opportunity to work with Music for Galway and ATU (Atlantic Technological University) on this social art project which aims at harnessing the power of music and performance to increase the ocean literacy of local musicians, not only with a view to strengthen their awareness of our impacts upon the ocean and its impact upon us, but also to provide them with tools and approaches to transform ocean knowledge into behaviours and action that promote ocean sustainability.”

Galway Bay Is Calling promises an exciting interactive series of ocean literacy workshops where participants will explore Galway’s coastline and marine life through beach combing and rock pooling, attending workshops and contributing to discussion and debate on climate change.

The group will work with scientists and researchers at ATU in Galway city to understand people’s behaviours and the key approaches that can influence attitude and ignite community transformation.

The Galway Bay Is Calling collective will then collaborate in groups with renowned Florence-based Irish cellist, singer and composer Naomi Berrill to articulate their experiences of the workshop and research work, exploring ideas for community responses.

Berrill will take these inputs and write a new composition for the collective, who will rehearse their parts independently before coming together in Galway a week before Music for Galway’s Cellissimo Festival in May 2024 to rehearse collectively.

The world premiere of Galway Bay Is Calling, a new composition for solo cello and a mixed-bag orchestra, will be presented at the opening day of Cellissimo in Galway on Saturday 18 May 2024.

The progress of Galway Bay Is Calling will be documented and shared over the coming months on participants’ social media channels. Details of Cellissimo will be announced later this year.

Published in Galway Harbour

Transport Minister Eamon Ryan has welcomed the adoption by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) of a revised 2023 strategy on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships.

Significantly, this includes a provision for an economic element on the basis of a maritime GHG emission pricing mechanism.

The 2023 GHG Strategy was adopted at the 80th session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee in London. Ireland has been supportive of the highest level of ambition throughout the negotiation of this strategy.

The revised strategy sets a goal of net zero GHG emissions from ships by or around 2050. This is a significant increase in ambition compared to the initial 2018 strategy which targeted a 50% reduction compared to 2008 levels.

The strategy has introduced important indicative checkpoints along this 2050 pathway. The 2030 checkpoint is set at reducing GHG emissions from ships by at least 20%, while striving for 30%. For 2040, this stands at 70% while striving for 80%. Both checkpoints are in comparison to 2008 levels.

In an important move, the strategy includes a basket of candidate mid-term GHG reduction measures including an economic element on the basis of a maritime GHG emissions pricing. This is something that Minister Ryan and Ireland have been advocating for a number of years, the Department of Transport says.

Commenting after the IMO’s revised strategy announcement on Friday (7 July), Minister Ryan said: “At last year’s COP27 in Egypt the key issue was climate finance and agreement on a loss and damage fund to help the poorest countries, states and people in the world, who are being disproportionately impacted by the devastation of climate change.

“At COP, global leaders like Mary Robinson were advocating for a pricing mechanism or levy on carbon heavy industries, like the maritime and aviation sectors. It is really encouraging to see that this globally agreed strategy, which will accelerate the sector’s transition away from polluting fossil fuels, now also, significantly and bravely, provides for a pricing mechanism. The key thing now is to go to the next steps, turning this agreed strategy into action.”

The strategy also includes provision for a new target of at least 5%, striving for 10% uptake of zero or near-zero GHG emission technologies, fuels and/or energy sources by 2030.

There was further agreement on the timeline for introducing mid-term measures, which will be crucial for the implementation of this strategy.

Much work remains in the process, with the agreement to initiate a comprehensive impact assessment of the remaining candidate measures. This timeline will see measures adopted by 2025 and enter into force by 2027, while giving appropriate consideration to assess possible impacts on states.

While Ireland and others had called for higher levels of ambition during the negotiation process, the department says it was important to secure widespread support to reach such an agreement that can now be implemented globally.

This resulting 2023 strategy marks an important milestone along the maritime fuel transition, it adds, and it is hoped that it will send a clear signal to the maritime and fuel industries on the commitment to phase out GHG emissions from shipping.

The adoption by unanimous support from member states of the IMO is also important in ensuring a high level of solidarity in delivering on the ambition of net zero by 2050, it says.

Published in Ports & Shipping

Surface ocean carbon dioxide observations from Irish waters collected by the Marine Institute’s RV Celtic Explorer have been published in the 2023 version of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT).

With over 42 million surface ocean CO2 measurements from across the globe, SOCAT is a key dataset for quantifying the evolving ocean uptake and sink for CO2.

This data provides scientists, climate researchers and international policy makers with essential information on ocean carbon dioxide measurements. And such observations are essential to understand current and project future climate change as well as for monitoring changes in ocean chemistry and predicting the impacts of these changes.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations continue to rise rapidly and currently are at about 420 parts per million (ppm), up from 280ppm in preindustrial times.

The current atmospheric level would be significantly higher, and climate change even more pronounced, but for our global ocean absorbing about a quarter of CO2 emissions from human activities each year.

There is, however, a cost: Absorbing additional CO2 increases the acidity of seawater. This process is known as ocean acidification, and it may have dramatic consequences for marine life, as detailed in a recent assessment by OSPAR.

If sea water is too acidic, it can make it difficult for marine organisms such as coral, oysters and mussels to form shells and skeletons. The impacts of ocean acidification and warming could also extend up the food chain, affecting fisheries and aquaculture, threatening food security for millions of people.

Evin McGovern at the Marine Institute, who was co-convenor of the international expert group that produced the OSPAR Ocean Acidification assessment said: “High-quality measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide are needed for a better understanding of the impact of ocean-atmosphere interactions on climate. The Marine Institute is contributing to global science, providing advanced scientific knowledge which will help inform policy and our response to a changing ocean.”

Ocean and atmospheric CO2 measurements have been collected on the RV Celtic Explorer since 2017. This year Ireland joined the Integrated Carbon Observing Station (ICOS), a European Infrastructure network supporting standardised high-precision carbon flux measurements between atmosphere, land and the ocean, and the RV Celtic Explorer was adopted as an ICOS Ocean “station”.

In Ireland, marine CO2 measurements are also collected at fixed stations and additional CO2 observing capacity will be available on the new national research vessel, the RV Tom Crean, extending the coverage.

Published in Marine Science

Dublin Port Company is recruiting for the role of energy and decarbonisation lead.

The State-owned commercial port says it “aims to play a strong role in achieving its own energy and decarbonisation goals, as well as supporting and influencing wider Dublin Port stakeholders in meeting their own energy reduction and decarbonisation ambitions”.

Dublin Port has 15,000 annual vessel movements, handles almost half of the Republic of Ireland’s trade, is the largest freight and passenger port in Ireland and is one of five major ports classified as Tier 1/Tier 2 ports in the National Ports Policy.

The energy and decarbonisation lead will head the development, implementation and delivery of plans to ensure that Dublin Port Company meets its energy and decarbonisation goals and commitments.

As the company provides critical national port infrastructure, the role will require a close working relationship with its stakeholders to ensure it understands their decarbonisation needs, in order to best support them in meeting their energy and decarbonisation goals.

The role will require leading the energy and decarbonisation team, especially working closely with the port’s technical manager, property and facilities manager and assistant harbour master, who are all key members of that team.

Key responsibilities also include work within energy and decarbonisation management, the NewERA Climate Action Framework for the Commercial Semi-State Sector, Dublin Port Energy & Decarbonisation Community, infrastructure and more.

Must-have requirements include a FETAC Level 8 undergraduate degree qualification in energy, environment, sustainability or an engineering discipline; a minimum of five years’ industry experience and ability to demonstrate competent knowledge in the fields of energy or sustainability; and management system experience (eg ISO 9001/14001/50001).

Those interested can find further information and apply for the position via LinkedIn HERE.

Published in Jobs

Scientists warn that an “unheard of” marine heatwave in the waters off Ireland and Great Britain poses a significant threat to marine wildlife and plant life.

As the Guardian reports, the emerging El Niño conditions in the North Atlantic and North Sea have seen sea temperatures rise as much as 5C above normal in some areas — smashing regional records.

Prof Daniela Schmidt of the University of Bristol says the current situation shows “the power of the combination of human-induced warming and natural climate variability”.

She adds: “In other parts of the world, we have seen several mass mortalities of marine plants and animals caused by ocean heatwave which have caused hundreds of millions of pounds of losses, in fisheries income, carbon storage, cultural values and habitat loss.

“As long as we are not dramatically cutting emissions, these heatwaves will continue to destroy our ecosystems. But as this is happening below the surface of the ocean, it will go unnoticed.”

The Guardian has more on the story HERE.

Published in Environment

Freshwater lakes, rivers and their aquatic communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to water abstractions and the impact of climate change.

That is according to Inland Fisheries Ireland (IFI) who issued a call this week to encourage future development planning applications to consider the impact of water abstractions from Ireland’s rivers, lakes and fish species.

Water level fluctuations caused by numerous pressures, including abstractions, can negatively impact aquatic ecosystems and consequently, the services they provide to the local economy and to aquatic biodiversity.

Higher water temperatures as a result of climate change are also said to have an impact on the natural water cycles of our rivers and lakes, causing thermal regimes in lakes and rivers to change. This results in a reduction in wetted area and a decrease in suitable habitat for fish and other aquatic communities during droughts.

IFI is cautioning that changes in the flow or abstraction of water in a catchment can be extremely harmful to migratory fish species such as salmon, sea trout and eel, which are already stressed as a result of climate change.

Such adverse conditions can reduce the success of fish migration and demonstrate how vulnerable these species are to changing climatic conditions and other pressures.

Francis O’Donnell, chief executive of IFI said: “It is imperative that we ensure where possible, all water resources are managed sustainably to protect our natural resources. This involves making sure that river flows and lake levels can sustain aquatic environments and biota while also allowing the use of water for drinking water supply and other purposes such as agricultural, commercial, industrial and recreational use.

“IFI strongly advises that the impacts of climate change should be considered in all planning applications for developments that affect the natural hydrological water cycle and the wider aquatic community. IFI has a statutory responsibility to protect salmonids and other freshwater fish species including eels and this will remain our first priority.”

Dr Cathal Gallagher, head of research at IFI added: “IFI’s Climate Change Mitigation Research Programme was set up in 2019 to assess the impact of climate change on Ireland’s fish and habitats. The ongoing research is already identifying areas in catchments where fish species and habitats are most under threat, but also areas that are showing resilience to climate change. It is important that we work together to safeguard the future of our natural resources.”

For more information visit IFI’s Climate Change Mitigation Research programme HERE.

Published in Angling
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Ireland's Offshore Renewable Energy

Because of Ireland's location at the Atlantic edge of the EU, it has more offshore energy potential than most other countries in Europe. The conditions are suitable for the development of the full range of current offshore renewable energy technologies.

Offshore Renewable Energy FAQs

Offshore renewable energy draws on the natural energy provided by wind, wave and tide to convert it into electricity for industry and domestic consumption.

Offshore wind is the most advanced technology, using fixed wind turbines in coastal areas, while floating wind is a developing technology more suited to deeper water. In 2018, offshore wind provided a tiny fraction of global electricity supply, but it is set to expand strongly in the coming decades into a USD 1 trillion business, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). It says that turbines are growing in size and in power capacity, which in turn is "delivering major performance and cost improvements for offshore wind farms".

The global offshore wind market grew nearly 30% per year between 2010 and 2018, according to the IEA, due to rapid technology improvements, It calculated that about 150 new offshore wind projects are in active development around the world. Europe in particular has fostered the technology's development, led by Britain, Germany and Denmark, but China added more capacity than any other country in 2018.

A report for the Irish Wind Energy Assocation (IWEA) by the Carbon Trust – a British government-backed limited company established to accelerate Britain's move to a low carbon economy - says there are currently 14 fixed-bottom wind energy projects, four floating wind projects and one project that has yet to choose a technology at some stage of development in Irish waters. Some of these projects are aiming to build before 2030 to contribute to the 5GW target set by the Irish government, and others are expected to build after 2030. These projects have to secure planning permission, obtain a grid connection and also be successful in a competitive auction in the Renewable Electricity Support Scheme (RESS).

The electricity generated by each turbine is collected by an offshore electricity substation located within the wind farm. Seabed cables connect the offshore substation to an onshore substation on the coast. These cables transport the electricity to land from where it will be used to power homes, farms and businesses around Ireland. The offshore developer works with EirGrid, which operates the national grid, to identify how best to do this and where exactly on the grid the project should connect.

The new Marine Planning and Development Management Bill will create a new streamlined system for planning permission for activity or infrastructure in Irish waters or on the seabed, including offshore wind farms. It is due to be published before the end of 2020 and enacted in 2021.

There are a number of companies aiming to develop offshore wind energy off the Irish coast and some of the larger ones would be ESB, SSE Renewables, Energia, Statkraft and RWE.

There are a number of companies aiming to develop offshore wind energy off the Irish coast and some of the larger ones would be ESB, SSE Renewables, Energia, Statkraft and RWE. Is there scope for community involvement in offshore wind? The IWEA says that from the early stages of a project, the wind farm developer "should be engaging with the local community to inform them about the project, answer their questions and listen to their concerns". It says this provides the community with "the opportunity to work with the developer to help shape the final layout and design of the project". Listening to fishing industry concerns, and how fishermen may be affected by survey works, construction and eventual operation of a project is "of particular concern to developers", the IWEA says. It says there will also be a community benefit fund put in place for each project. It says the final details of this will be addressed in the design of the RESS (see below) for offshore wind but it has the potential to be "tens of millions of euro over the 15 years of the RESS contract". The Government is also considering the possibility that communities will be enabled to invest in offshore wind farms though there is "no clarity yet on how this would work", the IWEA says.

Based on current plans, it would amount to around 12 GW of offshore wind energy. However, the IWEA points out that is unlikely that all of the projects planned will be completed. The industry says there is even more significant potential for floating offshore wind off Ireland's west coast and the Programme for Government contains a commitment to develop a long-term plan for at least 30 GW of floating offshore wind in our deeper waters.

There are many different models of turbines. The larger a turbine, the more efficient it is in producing electricity at a good price. In choosing a turbine model the developer will be conscious of this ,but also has to be aware the impact of the turbine on the environment, marine life, biodiversity and visual impact. As a broad rule an offshore wind turbine will have a tip-height of between 165m and 215m tall. However, turbine technology is evolving at a rapid rate with larger more efficient turbines anticipated on the market in the coming years.

 

The Renewable Electricity Support Scheme is designed to support the development of renewable energy projects in Ireland. Under the scheme wind farms and solar farms compete against each other in an auction with the projects which offer power at the lowest price awarded contracts. These contracts provide them with a guaranteed price for their power for 15 years. If they obtain a better price for their electricity on the wholesale market they must return the difference to the consumer.

Yes. The first auction for offshore renewable energy projects is expected to take place in late 2021.

Cost is one difference, and technology is another. Floating wind farm technology is relatively new, but allows use of deeper water. Ireland's 50-metre contour line is the limit for traditional bottom-fixed wind farms, and it is also very close to population centres, which makes visibility of large turbines an issue - hence the attraction of floating structures Do offshore wind farms pose a navigational hazard to shipping? Inshore fishermen do have valid concerns. One of the first steps in identifying a site as a potential location for an offshore wind farm is to identify and assess the level of existing marine activity in the area and this particularly includes shipping. The National Marine Planning Framework aims to create, for the first time, a plan to balance the various kinds of offshore activity with the protection of the Irish marine environment. This is expected to be published before the end of 2020, and will set out clearly where is suitable for offshore renewable energy development and where it is not - due, for example, to shipping movements and safe navigation.

YEnvironmental organisations are concerned about the impact of turbines on bird populations, particularly migrating birds. A Danish scientific study published in 2019 found evidence that larger birds were tending to avoid turbine blades, but said it didn't have sufficient evidence for smaller birds – and cautioned that the cumulative effect of farms could still have an impact on bird movements. A full environmental impact assessment has to be carried out before a developer can apply for planning permission to develop an offshore wind farm. This would include desk-based studies as well as extensive surveys of the population and movements of birds and marine mammals, as well as fish and seabed habitats. If a potential environmental impact is identified the developer must, as part of the planning application, show how the project will be designed in such a way as to avoid the impact or to mitigate against it.

A typical 500 MW offshore wind farm would require an operations and maintenance base which would be on the nearby coast. Such a project would generally create between 80-100 fulltime jobs, according to the IWEA. There would also be a substantial increase to in-direct employment and associated socio-economic benefit to the surrounding area where the operation and maintenance hub is located.

The recent Carbon Trust report for the IWEA, entitled Harnessing our potential, identified significant skills shortages for offshore wind in Ireland across the areas of engineering financial services and logistics. The IWEA says that as Ireland is a relatively new entrant to the offshore wind market, there are "opportunities to develop and implement strategies to address the skills shortages for delivering offshore wind and for Ireland to be a net exporter of human capital and skills to the highly competitive global offshore wind supply chain". Offshore wind requires a diverse workforce with jobs in both transferable (for example from the oil and gas sector) and specialist disciplines across apprenticeships and higher education. IWEA have a training network called the Green Tech Skillnet that facilitates training and networking opportunities in the renewable energy sector.

It is expected that developing the 3.5 GW of offshore wind energy identified in the Government's Climate Action Plan would create around 2,500 jobs in construction and development and around 700 permanent operations and maintenance jobs. The Programme for Government published in 2020 has an enhanced target of 5 GW of offshore wind which would create even more employment. The industry says that in the initial stages, the development of offshore wind energy would create employment in conducting environmental surveys, community engagement and development applications for planning. As a site moves to construction, people with backgrounds in various types of engineering, marine construction and marine transport would be recruited. Once the site is up and running , a project requires a team of turbine technicians, engineers and administrators to ensure the wind farm is fully and properly maintained, as well as crew for the crew transfer vessels transporting workers from shore to the turbines.

The IEA says that today's offshore wind market "doesn't even come close to tapping the full potential – with high-quality resources available in most major markets". It estimates that offshore wind has the potential to generate more than 420 000 Terawatt hours per year (TWh/yr) worldwide – as in more than 18 times the current global electricity demand. One Terawatt is 114 megawatts, and to put it in context, Scotland it has a population a little over 5 million and requires 25 TWh/yr of electrical energy.

Not as advanced as wind, with anchoring a big challenge – given that the most effective wave energy has to be in the most energetic locations, such as the Irish west coast. Britain, Ireland and Portugal are regarded as most advanced in developing wave energy technology. The prize is significant, the industry says, as there are forecasts that varying between 4000TWh/yr to 29500TWh/yr. Europe consumes around 3000TWh/year.

The industry has two main umbrella organisations – the Irish Wind Energy Association, which represents both onshore and offshore wind, and the Marine Renewables Industry Association, which focuses on all types of renewable in the marine environment.

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