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#MARINE WARNING - The latest Marine Notice from the Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport (DTTAS) advises that offshore drilling has commenced off the south coast.
The semi-submersible drilling unit Arctic III (callsign YJSU9) will be drilling some 65km south of Roches Point, Co Cork, for a period of approximately three months.
The drilling unit will have a dedicated stand-by safety vessel and supply vessel, both listening on VHF channel 16 throughout the project.
All vessels, particularly those involved in fishing, are urged to give the drilling unit and its handling vessels a wide berth of at least 500 metres and to keep a sharp lookout in the area.
Full location co-ordinates and further details are included in Marine Notice No 53 of 2011, a PDF of which is available to read and download HERE.

#MARINE WARNING - The latest Marine Notice from the Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport (DTTAS) advises that offshore drilling has commenced off the south coast.

The semi-submersible drilling unit Arctic III (callsign YJSU9) will be drilling some 65km south of Roches Point, Co Cork, for a period of approximately three months.

The drilling unit will have a dedicated stand-by safety vessel and supply vessel, both listening on VHF channel 16 throughout the project.

All vessels, particularly those involved in fishing, are urged to give the drilling unit and its handling vessels a wide berth of at least 500 metres and to keep a sharp lookout in the area.

Full location co-ordinates and further details are included in Marine Notice No 53 of 2011, a PDF of which is available to read and download HERE.

Published in Marine Warning
#RESCUE - A fisherman on a Spanish vessel is in hospital after being airlifted from some 150 nautical miles southwest of Co Cork early yesterday, The Irish Times reports.
The skipper of the fishing vessel Albelo Primero radioed the Irish Coast Guard's Marine Rescue Co-ordination Centre on Wednesday night, reporting that a 33-year-old crewman had taken ill and required emergency medical attention.
The man was airlifted by coastguard helicopter to Cork Airport and transfered by ambulance to Cork University Hospital.
The Irish Times said his condition is not understood to be life-threatening.
#RESCUE - A fisherman on a Spanish vessel is in hospital after being airlifted from some 150 nautical miles southwest of Co Cork early yesterday, The Irish Times reports.

The skipper of the fishing vessel Albelo Primero radioed the Irish Coast Guard's Marine Rescue Co-ordination Centre on Wednesday night, reporting that a 33-year-old crewman had taken ill and required emergency medical attention.

The man was airlifted by coastguard helicopter to Cork Airport and transfered by ambulance to Cork University Hospital.

The Irish Times said his condition is not understood to be life-threatening.
Published in Rescue
#FISHING – Commenting on the first ever Irish Discards Atlas, which was launched today, Minister Simon Coveney said "Ireland has now taken the lead in the debate on discards and this Atlas will inform the process to achieve real change and a significant reduction in discarding within the new Common Fisheries Policy". Minister Coveney emphasised that "discarding is an EU wide issue, not just an Irish issue. While the Atlas highlights discarding in the Irish fleet, all Member States fishing these stocks, do so at the same time, using similar gears and under the same market conditions. While there may be some differences, overall the discard trends will be similar for all".

The Marine Institute and BIM produced the "Discard Atlas" – which is a detailed compendium of discards by the Irish Fleet on a stock by stock and area by area basis. The Atlas also outlines a range of potential measures to help reduce discarding. The "Discard Atlas - scientific observations and potential solutions" was compiled with the support of Irish Industry, to inform the EU wide discard debate, to identify where action needs to be taken and to inform on the appropriate measures.

Commenting on the Atlas Minister Coveney said "Ireland has now taken the lead in the debate on discards and this Atlas will inform the process to achieve real change and a significant reduction in discarding within the new Common Fisheries Policy". Minister Coveney emphasised that "discarding is an EU wide issue, not just an Irish issue. While the Atlas highlights discarding in the Irish fleet, all Member States fishing these stocks, do so at the same time, using similar gears and under the same market conditions. While there may be some differences, overall the discard trends will be similar for all".

In calling for all Member States to publish their figures, the Minister said "I have consistently said that discarding is a complex issue and the debate must be informed by all the scientific facts, so we can better understand the issues and identify potential solutions". The information provided in the Atlas is based on information that is collected by all Member States. However, the international data has not been compiled into an Atlas format. Minister Coveney said " It is only when the full extent of the available international data are compiled can we collectively make informed decisions on a coherent EU wide discard policy, underpinned by a focussed suite of measures to significantly reduce and ultimately eliminate discards. The information contained in the Atlas re-enforces my long held view that we need to tackle the discard problem on a stock by stock and fishery by fishery basis, and not by a blunt simplistic blanket ban which will be difficult to enforce".

The Atlas states that in a review of world discarding, the UN noted that the northeast Atlantic has the second highest discard level in the world, estimated to be 1.3 million tonnes, the majority being attributed to EU fisheries. The extent of discarding varies and where international data are available, the picture is mixed. In the Celtic Sea, international discarding of haddock was 12,400 tonnes (56% by weight) in 2010. In the Irish Sea; an average discard rate of 30% for haddock associated with Irish vessels is in line with other countries. However, there are cases where Ireland makes a very minor contribution to overall international discarding; for example in 2010, 1,183t of Cod was discarded in the North West fishery (area Via), yet Ireland contributed to less than 1% of this.

Minister Coveney said that "I want to commend the Irish industry in their decision to support this project, and acknowledge that they have already been pro-active in bringing forward proposals to reduce discarding of, Cod, Haddock and Whiting in the Celtic Sea. I intend to build on this good work by asking the Irish Fisheries Science Research Partnership (IFSRP) to look at the matter in light of the new Atlas information and explore the possibility of coming forward with further ambitious discard mitigation measure. It is only by this type of cross industry co-operation that a comprehensive set of proposals for dealing with the EU wide discarding problem can be designed and implemented, and I call on other Member States to follow the Irish lead and publish the full details of their discards so that our common goal for the elimination of discards can be realised."

Published in Fishing
Tagged under
#FISHING – The skipper of Grimsby based fishing vessel 'Karen', that grounded on rocks at Ardglass in Northern Ireland, has pleaded guilty to the charge of endangering his ship and crew.

On 3rd January 2011 the UK registered fishing vessel 'Karen' was returning from a day's fishing in the Irish Sea when it grounded on the rocks at the North entrance to the port of Ardglass.

The vessel asked for urgent assistance from the Coastguard and the lifeboat from Portaferry was requested to launch to their aid. Because the weather was fair they were able to bring the crew ashore to Ardglass and to put pumps aboard the stricken vessel. The boat was later re-floated as the tide rose, however it sustained serious damage to the bow and keel.

At the Magistrate's Court in Downpatrick on 7th November 2011, skipper Simon Wills pleaded guilty of failing to properly navigate his vessel and to employing crew who were not qualified and did not meet the requirements of the fishing vessel safety training regulations

Mr Wills was fined a total of £600 and ordered to pay £1,250 to the RNLI.

On summing up the Magistrate Brian Archer said,
"It was fortunate that no one was injured."

Captain Bill Bennett, Area Operations Manager (Survey and Inspection) Belfast, for the MCA stated that

"This was a serious breach of the fishing vessel safety training regulations and once again reminds all fishermen of the need to ensure everyone onboard is properly qualified and to safely navigate his vessel and to maintain a lookout at all times.  All breaches of the Maritime Regulations are taken seriously by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency."

Published in Fishing
Bord Iascaigh Mhara (BIM), the Seafood Development Agency, Irish Water Safety (IWS), the statutory body established to promote water safety and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) are continuing their campaign to encourage more fishermen to wear their lifejackets at sea.

Despite seven fishermen losing their lives at sea this year to date, a laissez-faire attitude to safety still exists in the industry, particularly in relation to the wearing of lifejackets. In an effort to get fishermen to take notice of the real danger of going to sea without wearing a lifejacket, Noel O'Sullivan, a fisherman from Castletownbere, Co. Cork will act as Ambassador for the campaign. Noel survived an accident at sea, along with his six crew, when his vessel 'Discovery' capsized off the Isles of Scilly on the 29th January, 2007.

Noel describes the day of the accident...'I will never forget that day. As we were hauling in the catch, I knew there was something wrong. She was listing dangerously and I instructed the crew to launch the life rafts and jump overboard. As we jumped, she listed violently and capsized onto one of the life-rafts - puncturing it.....I treaded the freezing water for more than two hours until we were rescued..... I was terrified going back fishing but I went back as it's my livelihood, it's what I know...the difference is, I am more aware of the dangers now and I insist all my crew wear lifejackets. I would appeal to all fishermen to do the same' (Hear Noel's full story on BIM's website, www.bim.ie.

The fatality rate for Ireland's fishing sector stands at 88 per 100,000, making it 48 times more hazardous than other occupations*. Wearing a suitable lifejacket is the single most effective measure a fisherman can take to increase the chance of survival if involved in a man-overboard accident at sea.

Jason Whooley, BIM's CEO appeals to the fishing industry: 'I am sincerely asking all fishermen to wear their lifejackets. It could be the difference between life and death, it is that simple. Despite being a legal requirement, it is not something that is taken seriously enough in the fishing sector. We aim, along with our partners, IWS and the RNLI, to change this mentality through a targeted and ongoing safety campaign and I am delighted that Noel, who has personally survived an accident at sea, is helping us to drive this important message home.'

Current RNLI statistics suggest that less than 35% of fishermen regularly wear a lifejacket. Many fishermen feel that wearing a jacket inhibits their mobility and makes working on deck much more difficult. Part of this awareness campaign will be highlighting that there are a growing range of lifejackets that fishermen can use to suit their method of fishing and skippers and crew have a responsibility to themselves, work colleagues and family to consider the available options. In fact, there are new lifejackets on the market that are extremely light and compact and would not interfere with work on deck at all.

Published in Marine Warning
Tagged under
The Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Simon Coveney TD, today met the UK Fisheries' Minister, Richard Banyon, who was accompanied by the Scottish and Welsh Fisheries' Ministers, Richard Lochhead and Alun Davies. During their discussions, the Ministers reviewed their current priorities on the fisheries' agenda and focused, in particular, on the negotiations currently underway in London on the share-out of the Mackerel stock, involving the EU, Norway, Iceland and the Faroe Islands.

The meeting took place in Luxembourg, where Minister Coveney is attending an EU Council of Agriculture & Fisheries' Ministers.

The Ministers discussed the ongoing mackerel negotiations in London, which are critical for their respective fishing industries, which together have the majority of the EU mackerel catch. Ministers agreed that the current unrestricted, irresponsible fishing of mackerel by Iceland and the Faroe Islands was totally unacceptable and would result, if continued at its current level, in the destruction of the stock.

The Ministers agreed to work together to secure an agreement on a fair share of Mackerel for Iceland and the Faroes. Minister Coveney said "I appreciate that serious efforts are underway to reach agreement on the share out of Mackerel, which is Ireland's most important fishery. I am very concerned that an agreement is not secured at a high cost as the share given to Iceland and the Faroes involves a reduction in Ireland's share. The share agreed, therefore, must be fair and proportionate. I welcome the outcome of today's meeting with my Ministerial counterparts to closely cooperate in the negotiations, in order to protect the interests of our fishing industry, which is dependent on a sustainably managed Mackerel stock."

Minister Coveney also said that the Ministers had agreed "to strongly demand trade sanctions, promised by Commissioner Damanaki, in the event that either Iceland or the Faroes are not prepared to stop their irresponsible fishing."

In addition to their discussions on the mackerel issue, the Ministers also discussed progress and their respective priorities on the reform of the CFP and the upcoming negotiations on TACs and quotas.

Published in Fishing
Tagged under
Environmentalists have welcomed the decision by the Minister for the Marine to refuse a permit for commercial sea bass fishing in the Celtic Sea, The Irish Times reports.
The Friends of the Irish Environment hailed Minister Simon Coveney's retention of the total ban on commercial exploitation of sea bass stocks.
Anglers are only permitted to keep two of such fish measuring more than 40cm in any 24-hour period.
There has been much opposition to the proposal by the Federation of Irish Fishermen to lift the ban on commerical bass fishing.
The species has been on the protected list for more than 20 years but this protection was only made permanent in 2006.

Environmentalists have welcomed the decision by the Minister for the Marine to refuse a permit for commercial sea bass fishing in the Celtic Sea, The Irish Times reports.

The Friends of the Irish Environment hailed Minister Simon Coveney's retention of the total ban on commercial exploitation of sea bass stocks. 

Anglers are only permitted to keep two of such fish measuring more than 40cm in any 24-hour period.

There has been much opposition to the proposal by the Federation of Irish Fishermen to lift the ban on commerical bass fishing.

The species has been on the protected list for more than 20 years but this protection was only made permanent in 2006.

Published in Fishing
Northern Ireland's sports minister has announced that there will be no increase in fishing licence fees for the 2012 angling seasons.
Carál Ní Chuilín said that "In light of the current economic climate, I have decided to keep the salmon and inland fishing licence fees at 2011 levels."
It marks the third year in a row that there has been no annual increase in fees for fishing licences.
The Minister added: "I hope this will continue to ease the financial burden on those involved in the commercial fishing sectors and encourage others to enjoy recreational fishing.”
The only changes for next year will be on fishing permits for the Public Angling Estate, which are subject to an inflationary rise of 4.8%.
The NI Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure says it is encouraging all fishermen and women to ensure that they have a rod licence and the correct permit to fish.
Those caught without the necessary documents will be reported with a view to prosecution, it says.
Fishing licences and permits are available to purchase online from at www.nidirect.gov.uk/angling

Northern Ireland's sports minister has announced that there will be no increase in fishing licence fees for the 2012 angling seasons.

Carál Ní Chuilín said that "In light of the current economic climate, I have decided to keep the salmon and inland fishing licence fees at 2011 levels."

It marks the third year in a row that there has been no annual increase in fees for fishing licences. 

The Minister added: "I hope this will continue to ease the financial burden on those involved in the commercial fishing sectors and encourage others to enjoy recreational fishing.”

The only changes for next year will be on fishing permits for the Public Angling Estate, which are subject to an inflationary rise of 4.8%.

The NI Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure says it is encouraging all fishermen and women to ensure that they have a rod licence and the correct permit to fish. 

Those caught without the necessary documents will be reported with a view to prosecution, it says.

Fishing licences and permits are available to purchase online at www.nidirect.gov.uk/angling

Published in Angling
The ESB has made an agreement with Shannon Fisheries Preservation and Development Co to establish the new Shannon Fisheries Partnership, The Irish Times reports.
The new group will comprise representatives from both bodies as well as Inland Fisheries Ireland, and will be independently chaired by former Shannon Fisheries Board CEO Eamon Cusack.
The plan is for anglers, fishery authorities and stakeholders to come together to assist in the management of the River Shannon.
At the group's launch in Athlone recently, Cusack said the partnership was working toward ensuring a sustainable yield of fish.
The ESB has made an agreement with Shannon Fisheries Preservation and Development Co to establish the new Shannon Fisheries Partnership, The Irish Times reports.

The new group will comprise representatives from both bodies as well as Inland Fisheries Ireland, and will be independently chaired by former Shannon Fisheries Board CEO Eamon Cusack.

The plan is for anglers, fishery authorities and stakeholders to come together to assist in the management of the River Shannon.

At the group's launch in Athlone recently, Cusack said the partnership was working toward ensuring a sustainable yield of fish.
Published in Angling
The Irish Coastguard has rescued six people from a fishing boat off the north coast of County Donegal this morning.

The Irish registered  'Amy Jane' fishing vessel began taking in water about 13 miles off Malin Head this morning and was evacuated at 0945. The crew took to liferafts before being rescued. More details as we have it.

More from HM Coastguard

At 09.45am, Belfast Coastguard received a mayday call from a fishing vessel reporting that they were taking water and sinking.

The six crew of the fishing vessel took to their liferaft, dressed in their survival suits and took with them their EPIRB (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon) which they had activated and a handheld VHF Radio.

Belfast Coastguard working with Malin Head Coastguard who had direct communications with the liferaft initiated a search and rescue mission to rescue the men.

The Irish Coastguard helicopter Rescue 118 based at Sligo was requested and was the Coastguard Helicopter Rescue 100 based at Stornoway.

The RNLI lifeboats from Portrush and Lough Swilly were also requested to launch.

The fishing Amy Jane SO876 registered in Sligo was 13 miles north of Malin Head when it made the mayday call.

The weather was reported as being North Westerly, Force 6 with a moderate swell.

Coleraine Coastguard rescue team are at City of Derry airport to receive the survivors.

Steve Carson, Watch Manager, Belfast Coastguard said:

We are pleased that this has been a successful rescue of six fishermen.

Sea Survival training which is undertaken by crew of fishing vessels and being properly equipped is a key factor in the rescue of these six men today.


Published in Fishing
Page 64 of 69

Ireland's Offshore Renewable Energy

Because of Ireland's location at the Atlantic edge of the EU, it has more offshore energy potential than most other countries in Europe. The conditions are suitable for the development of the full range of current offshore renewable energy technologies.

Offshore Renewable Energy FAQs

Offshore renewable energy draws on the natural energy provided by wind, wave and tide to convert it into electricity for industry and domestic consumption.

Offshore wind is the most advanced technology, using fixed wind turbines in coastal areas, while floating wind is a developing technology more suited to deeper water. In 2018, offshore wind provided a tiny fraction of global electricity supply, but it is set to expand strongly in the coming decades into a USD 1 trillion business, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). It says that turbines are growing in size and in power capacity, which in turn is "delivering major performance and cost improvements for offshore wind farms".

The global offshore wind market grew nearly 30% per year between 2010 and 2018, according to the IEA, due to rapid technology improvements, It calculated that about 150 new offshore wind projects are in active development around the world. Europe in particular has fostered the technology's development, led by Britain, Germany and Denmark, but China added more capacity than any other country in 2018.

A report for the Irish Wind Energy Assocation (IWEA) by the Carbon Trust – a British government-backed limited company established to accelerate Britain's move to a low carbon economy - says there are currently 14 fixed-bottom wind energy projects, four floating wind projects and one project that has yet to choose a technology at some stage of development in Irish waters. Some of these projects are aiming to build before 2030 to contribute to the 5GW target set by the Irish government, and others are expected to build after 2030. These projects have to secure planning permission, obtain a grid connection and also be successful in a competitive auction in the Renewable Electricity Support Scheme (RESS).

The electricity generated by each turbine is collected by an offshore electricity substation located within the wind farm. Seabed cables connect the offshore substation to an onshore substation on the coast. These cables transport the electricity to land from where it will be used to power homes, farms and businesses around Ireland. The offshore developer works with EirGrid, which operates the national grid, to identify how best to do this and where exactly on the grid the project should connect.

The new Marine Planning and Development Management Bill will create a new streamlined system for planning permission for activity or infrastructure in Irish waters or on the seabed, including offshore wind farms. It is due to be published before the end of 2020 and enacted in 2021.

There are a number of companies aiming to develop offshore wind energy off the Irish coast and some of the larger ones would be ESB, SSE Renewables, Energia, Statkraft and RWE.

There are a number of companies aiming to develop offshore wind energy off the Irish coast and some of the larger ones would be ESB, SSE Renewables, Energia, Statkraft and RWE. Is there scope for community involvement in offshore wind? The IWEA says that from the early stages of a project, the wind farm developer "should be engaging with the local community to inform them about the project, answer their questions and listen to their concerns". It says this provides the community with "the opportunity to work with the developer to help shape the final layout and design of the project". Listening to fishing industry concerns, and how fishermen may be affected by survey works, construction and eventual operation of a project is "of particular concern to developers", the IWEA says. It says there will also be a community benefit fund put in place for each project. It says the final details of this will be addressed in the design of the RESS (see below) for offshore wind but it has the potential to be "tens of millions of euro over the 15 years of the RESS contract". The Government is also considering the possibility that communities will be enabled to invest in offshore wind farms though there is "no clarity yet on how this would work", the IWEA says.

Based on current plans, it would amount to around 12 GW of offshore wind energy. However, the IWEA points out that is unlikely that all of the projects planned will be completed. The industry says there is even more significant potential for floating offshore wind off Ireland's west coast and the Programme for Government contains a commitment to develop a long-term plan for at least 30 GW of floating offshore wind in our deeper waters.

There are many different models of turbines. The larger a turbine, the more efficient it is in producing electricity at a good price. In choosing a turbine model the developer will be conscious of this ,but also has to be aware the impact of the turbine on the environment, marine life, biodiversity and visual impact. As a broad rule an offshore wind turbine will have a tip-height of between 165m and 215m tall. However, turbine technology is evolving at a rapid rate with larger more efficient turbines anticipated on the market in the coming years.

 

The Renewable Electricity Support Scheme is designed to support the development of renewable energy projects in Ireland. Under the scheme wind farms and solar farms compete against each other in an auction with the projects which offer power at the lowest price awarded contracts. These contracts provide them with a guaranteed price for their power for 15 years. If they obtain a better price for their electricity on the wholesale market they must return the difference to the consumer.

Yes. The first auction for offshore renewable energy projects is expected to take place in late 2021.

Cost is one difference, and technology is another. Floating wind farm technology is relatively new, but allows use of deeper water. Ireland's 50-metre contour line is the limit for traditional bottom-fixed wind farms, and it is also very close to population centres, which makes visibility of large turbines an issue - hence the attraction of floating structures Do offshore wind farms pose a navigational hazard to shipping? Inshore fishermen do have valid concerns. One of the first steps in identifying a site as a potential location for an offshore wind farm is to identify and assess the level of existing marine activity in the area and this particularly includes shipping. The National Marine Planning Framework aims to create, for the first time, a plan to balance the various kinds of offshore activity with the protection of the Irish marine environment. This is expected to be published before the end of 2020, and will set out clearly where is suitable for offshore renewable energy development and where it is not - due, for example, to shipping movements and safe navigation.

YEnvironmental organisations are concerned about the impact of turbines on bird populations, particularly migrating birds. A Danish scientific study published in 2019 found evidence that larger birds were tending to avoid turbine blades, but said it didn't have sufficient evidence for smaller birds – and cautioned that the cumulative effect of farms could still have an impact on bird movements. A full environmental impact assessment has to be carried out before a developer can apply for planning permission to develop an offshore wind farm. This would include desk-based studies as well as extensive surveys of the population and movements of birds and marine mammals, as well as fish and seabed habitats. If a potential environmental impact is identified the developer must, as part of the planning application, show how the project will be designed in such a way as to avoid the impact or to mitigate against it.

A typical 500 MW offshore wind farm would require an operations and maintenance base which would be on the nearby coast. Such a project would generally create between 80-100 fulltime jobs, according to the IWEA. There would also be a substantial increase to in-direct employment and associated socio-economic benefit to the surrounding area where the operation and maintenance hub is located.

The recent Carbon Trust report for the IWEA, entitled Harnessing our potential, identified significant skills shortages for offshore wind in Ireland across the areas of engineering financial services and logistics. The IWEA says that as Ireland is a relatively new entrant to the offshore wind market, there are "opportunities to develop and implement strategies to address the skills shortages for delivering offshore wind and for Ireland to be a net exporter of human capital and skills to the highly competitive global offshore wind supply chain". Offshore wind requires a diverse workforce with jobs in both transferable (for example from the oil and gas sector) and specialist disciplines across apprenticeships and higher education. IWEA have a training network called the Green Tech Skillnet that facilitates training and networking opportunities in the renewable energy sector.

It is expected that developing the 3.5 GW of offshore wind energy identified in the Government's Climate Action Plan would create around 2,500 jobs in construction and development and around 700 permanent operations and maintenance jobs. The Programme for Government published in 2020 has an enhanced target of 5 GW of offshore wind which would create even more employment. The industry says that in the initial stages, the development of offshore wind energy would create employment in conducting environmental surveys, community engagement and development applications for planning. As a site moves to construction, people with backgrounds in various types of engineering, marine construction and marine transport would be recruited. Once the site is up and running , a project requires a team of turbine technicians, engineers and administrators to ensure the wind farm is fully and properly maintained, as well as crew for the crew transfer vessels transporting workers from shore to the turbines.

The IEA says that today's offshore wind market "doesn't even come close to tapping the full potential – with high-quality resources available in most major markets". It estimates that offshore wind has the potential to generate more than 420 000 Terawatt hours per year (TWh/yr) worldwide – as in more than 18 times the current global electricity demand. One Terawatt is 114 megawatts, and to put it in context, Scotland it has a population a little over 5 million and requires 25 TWh/yr of electrical energy.

Not as advanced as wind, with anchoring a big challenge – given that the most effective wave energy has to be in the most energetic locations, such as the Irish west coast. Britain, Ireland and Portugal are regarded as most advanced in developing wave energy technology. The prize is significant, the industry says, as there are forecasts that varying between 4000TWh/yr to 29500TWh/yr. Europe consumes around 3000TWh/year.

The industry has two main umbrella organisations – the Irish Wind Energy Association, which represents both onshore and offshore wind, and the Marine Renewables Industry Association, which focuses on all types of renewable in the marine environment.

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